1st margin question! *yeah!*
What different answers to the problem of disorder arose in classical China?
-Legalism (dependence of moral law)
-Confucianism (education system of Han dynasty)
-Daoism (way of nature/opposite of Confucian
Good for you Victoria! I'm glad to see you being active on this forum.
You answer is correct, but perhaps a bit incomplete for the purpose of really understanding this chapter. I would add that these systems arose in the Warring States period.
I would also mention that legalism was a kind of pessimistic view of people that assumes they're kind of dumb - that's kind of important when you see periods when Chinese rulers and bureaucrats followed that philosophy. People who followed this philosophy felt that only the people in charge could make wise decisions about society and that people have to be controlled using rewards and punishments. You can really see this today when the Chinese government does some pretty severe stuff to their own citizens.
Confucius assumed that since society is made up of unequal relationships, even within the family (makes you think about paleolithic egalitarianism) that the superiors have a responsibility to be sincere, compassionate and genuinely care about people. If that happens, then the "inferior" will be motivated to be loyal and obedient.
I'm not sure I agree that Daoism is the opposite of Confucianism, just based on different assumptions. The Dao/the way is based on nature. People screw up when they act in ways contrary to nature and make themselves unhappy. You can do that by withdrawing from political and social causes, stop striving to "get ahead" and live simply.
2nd margin question
Why has Confucianism been defined as a "humanistic philosophy" rather than a supernatural religion?
-He emphasized education as key to moral betterment (prescribed a broad liberal arts education)
-Family became a model for political life
-AND his teaching were practical, concerned with human relationships, effective govt., and social harmony (the educated elite had little to do with the existence of gods
Yeah, it's clearly practical and about this world, not the next. I sort of like the notion that we have the goodness in us already, it simply needs to be nurtured by self reflection (Socrates says the unexamined life is not worth living!), education (I do my best) and striving to improve one's moral character (boy, I'm really trying!).
3rd margin question
How did the Daoist outlook differ from that of Confucianism?
-thought of education and earnest striving as artificial and useless
-urged withdrawal into the world of nature while Confucianism concerned with human relationships, effective govt., and social harmony
-also provided an ideology for peasant uprisings
Looks good to me!
I just wanted to add on that Daoism promoted spontaneous, individualistic and natural behavior. It also included magic, fortunetelling, and the search for immortality.
You probably noticed that this was from last week when I almost read the wrong chapter. Hope they really are good answers.
Okay so my Saturday this week is actually free! Time to get this thing of the ground, woohoo!
What different answers to the problem of disorder arose in classical China?
Okay the answer is literally the section headings. I'll just summarize them.
--Saw rules and laws as the solution to China's problems
--These rules were strictly spelled out and enforced through rewards and punishments
--Had a pessimistic view of human nature
--Promoted farmers and soldiers as the only two essential groups in soceity
--Condemned artisans, merchants, aristocrats, scholars, etc.
--Inspiration for Shihuangdi and Qin dynasties, but was discredited by the brutality of them
--Saw moral example as key to social harmony
--Viewed society as comprising of unequal relationships
--Education viewed as the key to moral betterment
--Encouraged liberal arts
--Rituals and ceremonies important
--Became central to education system
--Family model for political life
--Urged withdrawl into the world of nature and encouraged spontaneous, natural behavior and discouraged education
--Central concept is dao, refers to the way of nature
--Percieved as complementing Confucianism, instead of contradicting. Sort of like the concept of yin and yang
--Provided ideology for peasant rebellions
As this answer took me a while, when I started Victoria had not yet posted her answer. I hope that my summaries are helpful.
Looks like all three of us were doing the same thing at the same time. Well, be left a pretty good trail for everyone else on these questions! I'm going to go tackle the big picture questions, you guys are doing great on these.
Well I need to eat XP
They are very helpful, thanks
5th Margin Question
In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in what ways did it challenge them?
Buddhism had a historical and distinct founder, Hinduism did not. Buddhism doesn't discriminate people into certain castes. Buddhism doesn't emphasize any sacred texts. Buddhism rejected authority of the Brahmins. They both, however, had concepts of ordinary life being an illusion, karma, rebirth, and meditation.
I'm probably missing some things so feel free to add on!
Along with the idea of rebirth came the idea of final release- nirvana for buddhism and moksha for hinduism.
Glad to see you here Jordan!
I would point out that this is a T-chart kind of question, if that's the way your brain works: Reflect Hindu/Challenge Hindu - see what I mean?
I think it's important to note here that the challenging of the authority of the Brahmins, and the caste system in general, it kind of a big deal. Remember, one of the main reasons for the short life of the Maurya, and later Gupta empire, was the strength of that system. This is just one way you are going to see this chapter resonate through the rest of this course.
Also, much of Buddha's teachings reflected the Hindu traditions from which it sprang
Buddhism reflected Hindu traditions in the idea that ordinary life is an illusion. Both religions had concepts of karma and rebirth, overcoming one’s ego, the practice of meditation, and hope to free one’s self from the eternal cycle of rebirth. However, Buddhism also challenged some aspects of the Hinduistic religion. Buddha rejected the religious authority of the Brahmins and ridiculed their rituals and sacrifices. Nor did Buddha show interest in stories about the creation of the world or the existence of God, and declared them irrelevant in the mission to achieve nirvana. Buddha also challenged the Hindu-based caste system, and argued that one’s caste position nor gender was a barrier to enlightenment.
In what ways did the religious traditions of South Asia change over the centuries?
•Earliest sacred texts called Vedas, first transmitted orally and then reduced to writing. They talk of competing kingdoms, of gods, and of rituals. Eventually, these rituals generated alot of criticism for their mechanical appearance and the fees the priests charged.
•Next, the Upanishads were written. These were designed to probe the meaning of the Vedas. Ritual was replaced by introspective thinking, and that is still a central concept of modern philosophical Hinduism.
•The idea of Brahman developed: the World Soul. Quests for worldly things were seen as legitimate, but the final goal was union with Brahman.
•This led to the idea of reincarnation until union with Brahman was achieved. Also lead to the idea of karma and the caste system.
If this question is meant to encompass more than just Hinduism, please let me know Bingham.
Notice we have two very similar words in this chapter: Brahman/Brahmin - you used it correctly, but this could be a source of confusion, I mined the glossary and put one up for this chapter on the "Classical" page. I did it last week too, but I didn't hear from anyone that it helped. I think it would for this chapter.
No, this is good, and you're right, it's difficult to see what Strayer was expecting you to pick up on here. Just to be safe, I'll answer it differently from a more macro point of view.
It's difficult and dangerous to generalize, but it seems there was a general evolution away from a religion based on external sacrifice and ritual to one of philosophical speculation, and then to one of devotional worship and detached action in the world.
I was thinking about showing you guys the Micheal Woods episode on the Buddha and Asoka this week. What do you think?
Yeaahhh I'm all for
Yeah that'd be cool.
Big Pic 1
“Religions are fundamentally alike.” Does the material in this chapter support or undermine this idea?
This question can, and should, be answered either way:
In support of the thesis that religions are fundamentally alike, you could mention influences like that of Zoroastrianism on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam or the influence of Judaism on Christianity and Islam.
You could also point out similarities across traditions, like those between Buddhism and Christianity Strayer talks about in the chapter.
To emphasize differences, you could point to differences even within cultural traditions, such as the beliefs that separate the Hindu and Buddhist faiths.
Also there are important differences across cultural traditions, such as the difference between the conception of
God in the Jewish and Christian traditions, Brahman in the Indian tradition, or the dao in the Chinese tradition.
You could also point out the difference between Greek and Confucian philosophy and the traditions that focus on the supernatural.
My test question detector is beeping...
Hmmm. Not a reading check certainly, but an open ended question? Perhaps young grasshopper!
I think that should be my new nickname
Hey to whoever is out there! Well, I was reading and came across the margin question: What new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddism? And I wanted to know if someone could help me break it down so I can understand what it is asking. Any help would be awesome.
Correct me if I'm wrong, but I believe he's asking what is new in Hinduism as it responds to the challenges of Buddhism. I think those are the same challenges he's referring to in the question about Buddhism reflecting Hinduism and challenging Hinduism. I think the main idea is just to take mention of what is new.
What new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddhism?
•expressed in epic poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana
•action in the world and performance of caste duties provide a path to liberation
•bhakti (worship) movement began in south India
*Intense devotion to a particular deity
*Vishnu and Shiva were the most popular
*Proliferation of gods and goddesses
this isn't probably the full answer, but this is all I came up with (so far!) :3
ah, that makes sense, thanks!
This was meant to add on the what Victoria had. (Not sure if it's correct, but just giving it a shot!)
-Ordinary people, not just Brahmins, could make spiritual progress by selflessly performing the ordinary duties of their lives
-Withdrawal and asceticism were not the only ways to moksha
Yes? No? Maybe so?
*Budda also incorporated into the Hindu pantheon as the ninth incarnation of Vishnu
whoops, meant Buddha
In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in what ways did it challenge them?
•life as an illusion
•karma and rebirth
•overcoming demands of the ego
•practice of meditation
•hope for release from the cycle of rebirth
•rejection of Brahmins’ religious authority
•lack of interest in abstract speculation
•need for individuals to take responsibility for their own spiritual development
•strong influence of Indian patriarchy
*but thousands of women became Buddhist nuns
*position was inferior, but offered more independence than did Hindus
Some add ons:
-Ridiculed rituals and sacrifices
-Rejected existence of a god
-Challenged inequalities in the caste system
-Enlightenment was available for everyone
I was a bit confused on your placement of the Indian patriarchy so I'm just going to go ahead and share what I have
-Still had patriarchal views (Prajapati was refused entrance into the order of monks)
-Women held more independence than in Hinduism (A separate order of nuns was made after intervention. They still didn't hold the same rights as the men, but were independent)
What is the difference between the Theravada and Mahayana expressions of Buddhism?
Theravada (the Teaching of the Elders)/ early version of the new religion
•The Buddha was a great teacher, but not divine
•Set of practices rather than set of beliefs (more psychological than religious)
•The gods are relatively unimportant
Mahayana (Great Vehicle)/ modified form of Buddhism of the Common Era
•Bodhisattvas provide help on journey to enlightenment
•The Buddha developed divine qualities; earlier and future Buddhas could offer help in spiritual path
•Buddhism became a popular religion of salvation
•Winning religious merit though acts of piety
Wooops that question took me a few minutes so I didn't know it had already been answered. I probably should have also added on what each of the names mean.
'S okay, and thanks for the add ons for the reflects and challenges mq
What is the difference between the Theravada and the Mahayana expressions of Buddhism?
-Buddha was a wise teacher but not divine
-More psychological than religious
-Set of practices rather than set of beliefs
-Gods played little role in assisting people "across the river"
-Help was available for the voyage
-They had Bodhisattvas, who were spiritually developed people that postponed their own entry into Nirvana to assist those suffering.
-Buddha was known as a God
-They had many levels of heaven and hell
-It was a religion of salvation
-Salvation was earned by acts of piety and devotion
-Allowed more people to take the voyage across the river.
What aspects of Zoroastrianism and Judaism subsequently found a place in Christianity and Islam?
•single god Ahura Mazda is source of truth, light, goodness
*Cosmic struggle with Angra Mainyu (force of evil)
*Ahura Mazda will eventually win, aided by a final savior
*Judgment day: restoration of world to purity and peace
*Need of an individual to choose good or evil
•Jews in the Persian Empire were influenced by Zoroastrian ideas
*Alexander and the Seleucid dynasty were disastrous for it
*flourished in Parthian (247 b.c.e.–224 c.e.) and Sassanid (224–651 c.e.) empires
*final decline caused by arrival of Islam; some Zoroastrians fled to India, became known as Parsis (“Persians”)
•Developed among the Hebrews, recorded in the Old Testament
*Distinctive conception of God
*Yahweh demanded exclusive loyalty “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.”
*Relationship with Yahweh as a covenant (contract)
*Lofty, transcendent deity – but communication was possible
•Foundation for both Christianity and Islam
-The conflict of God and an evil counterpart
-The notion of a last judgment and resurrected bodies
-A belief in the final defeat of evil
-The arrival of a savior (Messiah)
-The remaking of the world at the end of time
-The concepts of heaven and hell
-Conception of the divine as singular, transcendent, personal, separate from nature, engaged in history, and demanding social justice and moral righteousness about sacrifices and rituals.
-That understand of God provided the foundation on which Christianity and Islam were built
That's what I got.
What was distinctive about the Jewish religious tradition? (just the last part of the mq before this one plus a bit more)
•Developed among the Hebrews, recorded in the Old Testament
•Early tradition of migration to Palestine, led by Abraham
•Early tradition of enslavement in Egypt and escape
•Establishment of state of Israel ca. 1000 b.c.e. (soon divided into Israel (north) and Judah (south))
•Judean exiles in Babylon retained their cultural identity, returned to homeland
•Distinctive conception of God (Yahweh)
•Relationship with Yahweh as a contract or a covenant
•Lofty, transcendent Deity
•Foundation for both Christianity and Islam
I think that something else that Strayer mentioned was distinctive about Judaism is that their god was seen as separate from nature and was engaged in history, so unless I'm mistaken, that would apply to this category as well.
Hey, if anyone reads these, PLEASE correct or add anything if needed. (especially you picky people!) thanks ;D
You go girls!
MQ: uh i lost count... 11 ?
How would you compare the lives and teachings of Jesus and the buddah? In what different ways did the two religions evolve after the deaths of their founders?
-both claimed to have experienced another level of reality
- considered "wisdom teachers"
-urged reunification of wealth and emphasized love and compassion
- called for personal transformation through moving on
- St. Paul helped spread the religion
- offered women new oppertunities
-took on Roman practices when it was spreading through the Roman empire
- celebrated birth of its founder (Christmas)
-first covenents were lower- stratum people and women. spread to wealthier people
- developed hierarchial organization including patriarchs, bishops, priests, male dominated
-disagreements between East and West Rome about religion ( bishop and Roman Cathoics VS Eastern Orthodox)
- religously tolerent
- promoted harmony thoughout population
- did not support exclusion of other faiths
- clashed with interpretations of buddah
- Theravada and Mahayana split
- new practices, teachings,and meditation techneques emerged that lacked right and wrong ideas
Alright, thats what i found...
Don't forget the differences between the two
-Jesus inherited from his Jewish tradition an intense devotion to a single personal deity
-Buddha's original message, by contrast, largely ignored the supernatural
-Jesus' teachings had a sharper social and political edge than did those of Buddha
-Jesus' public life lasted less than three years, Buddha more than forty years
-Jesus was crucified as a common criminal
-Buddha died a natural death at age eighty
Correct me if I'm wrong, but another difference in their lives would be that Jesus was born into a lower-class family and advocated more for the rights of the poor and oppressed while the Buddha was born into royalty, I believe.
In what ways was Christianity transformed in the five centuries following the death of Jesus?
-began with Saint Paul
-offered women new opportunities
-converts were usually lower-stratum people (artisans, traders, and some women)
-accompanied by reports of miracles, healings, and the casting away of demons
-attracted converts by the way their members cared for one another
hope that's enough for the LAST MQ!
Would the split between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism forms of Christianity that Strayer mentions fall under this category as well?
I agree with Steffannie- I would include the split. Also,
- it developed a hierarchical organization, with patriarchs, bishops, and priests- all men- replacing the house churches of the early years which had included women
- - emerging hierarchical structure, along with its monotheistic faith, generated a concern for unity in matters of doctrine
- the split that was mentioned (EO and RC) emerged because of differences in practices and the role of the pope
--frequent controversy about the nature of Jesus , his relationship to god, and the doctrine of the trinity
- Christians sought to define an "orthodox", or correct, poistion on these and other issues
- religious conflict often led to bitterness and violence, such as the 30 year's war
I don't know if these are all relevant, or if they are everything, but this is what I got!
I took the self-test just now and after submitting my answers, I noticed that the my answer choice was correct, but the explanation that was provided contradicted what I selected.
2. All EXCEPT which of the following statements is true of the religious and philosophical traditions that developed in Eurasia in the centuries surrounding 500 b.c.e.?
a. All sought to define a single source of order and meaning in the universe.
b. All elevated the value of humankind.
c. All reacted in some way to an earlier polytheism.
d. All emphasized personal moral or spiritual transformation.
1 out of 1
Correct. The correct answer is b. All of these religious traditions are notable for the greater importance they placed on the value of human life. (see pages 126 and 127)
I'm pretty sure the answer is still b, but I just want to confirm. Is this correct?
Hmmm, that's odd- that's not what it said to me when I took it. It told me that yes, B is correct, because some still participated in ritual sacrifices and therefore didn't place higher value on humankind.
Strange, I got the same thing when I tried retaking it. I'm pretty sure I was reading the correct question, too.
What you got, I mean
I want to take a stab at one that hasn't yet been answered, because I'm pretty sure it can be summed up in just a couple of sentences but I want to make sure I'm not missing anything that might come later.
What are the distinctive features of the Greek intellectual tradition?
The greeks emphasized argument, logic, and relentless questioning of wisdom. They had confidence in hman reason, and they puzzled out the world while using little reference to the gods.
I feel a lack of testosterone. So, because I believe most if not all Margin Questions have been answered, I will answer the second Big Picture Question.
2. Is a secular outlook on the world essentially a modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?
It most certainly is not a modern idea in the slightest. Legalism, Confucianism, origional Buddhism, and Greek Rationalism all had little or no emphasis on religious figures.
Confucianism and Legalism focused on solving society's problems, and did so in a secular way; they taught of how to set examples for others and how to live with good morals. Confucianism was and is used in training in officials in China, a secular state.
Siddhartha Gautama taught that a sense of Enlightenment could be accomplished through meditation and reflection.
Greek Rationalism greatly centered on views of how to look at the world specifically in non-religious terms. It involved many scietific discoveries and new observations of the natural world.
Many of these Belief-Systems later were tied into either other religions, or were influenced and modified to accomidate super-natural powers, such as Buddhism to Hinduism.
Ok this helps me to better comprehend chapters, by relating ideas from that or previous chapters (and/or something else) So hopefully this will help at least one person (not including myself).
1. Confucianism can be considered a bridge between absolute imperialism and the caste system or greek city-states. The caste system and Greece refuted the idea of overall centralized unity of power and trade of imperialism. Confucianism respects systems from as small as a family system to the overall empire system (and by system I mean a single unit which can be selfsustained)
2. The earlier polytheistic religions are like the separate individualized territories (I guess you could call them that, but they didn't really have definitive borders much like their polytheistic deities). Then came along imperialism which unified these 'territories' into centralized and definite empires similar to the monotheistic religions which emphasized "theistic nationalism" (ya I just invented that term) and shunned other gods moreso than any other being Christianity in the Roman Empire.
I realize some of that was a jambalaya of ideas, but hopefully that was coherent, and I would appreciate comments either adding on to this or clearing up something I said above^^.
I would just like to comment a little about part 1 of your answer. I guess I could see how this could help you study (sort of) but I want to make sure that other people, and you, are clear that while Confucianism has that single quality that bridges imperialism and democracy, it is important to realize that 1: Confucianism is a belief system that, while mentioning government, is not specifically a government. 2: Greek city-states were in Greece, while Confucianism is a Chinese idea. So while it's interesting to see that combination of ideas, it's also important to make the distinction between their correct geographic areas and also their SPICE categories. Finally, 3: While I can see how Confucianism respected the government and emphasized good government, I don't think that it specifically states anywhere that Confucianism had anything to do with democracy. Okay wait, one more thing 4: I don't see how the caste system directly relates to the concept of greek city states.
I'm not trying to be critical, but I do want to ensure that the information that is being absorbed is taken in properly. Maybe I'm totally misunderstanding your point. But I also want to make sure that other people who read this post understand.
I just realized how much sense Giovanni's other blog idea makes, mainly because I think there should be "sub-blogs" like for instance there could be Chapter 5 then within that be further subdivisions like Chinese Philosophy, Greek Philosophy, Polytheistic Religions, Monotheistic Religions or something like that just to make things easier to manage, because it is hard to find a particular comment among 50 other comments. Just sayin... and idk if it is possible to do that on this website or Giovanni's blog, but that is just my suggestion
Well I wasn't really saying the caste system was a democracy I just meant that they where opposed to imperialism (moreso really in Greece) and I really wasn't trying to imply that these geographically separate ideas where dependent on each other only that they reflected similarities in each other (and ya I know I have difficulty with conveying what I really am trying to say) also I totally didn't think about SPICE
Jesus and Buddha: lifetimes, changed image after death, legacies.
2 margin questions.
2 analyze /explain questions.
Do the work, reap the reward. You determine your success and your grade, not me. Get something lasting from this class!
Er mer gerd! thanks much *even though you said "Jesus and Buddha 50 times in class"
Out of curiosity, does the first big pic question count as an "analyze/explain" question?
Point taken. But then, I gave away a question here last week and people still got it wrong, so there you go.
Aish, Patrick, so babo XD
it's obviously not a margin question and you are kind of analyzing the chapter if it supports that "religions are fundamentally alike"
so... babo? o-o
Victoria is obviously on her game these days, so you should probably listen to her.
I wish that was true, but it's memorizing that gets me down :(
Would it be wise to assume a question like "What new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddhism" or "In what ways did the religious traditions of South Asia change over the centuries?" would be one the test?
Probably 'What new emphases characterized Hinduism..." because its an analyzing question XD idk, maybe
I was thinking that too but the second one also has test worthy potential. But idk I haven't been able to think straight since all-state XP
You have a point, but I have a better one, they are all test worthy questions XP
Kind of an obvious question Patrick, but I'll cut you some slack since you're new to the alternate universe of Bingham where people actually think. I would say your second question is on the mark.
Oh wow, but not so surprising, THANX!
ouch... that actually hurt.............. >.>
but thanks Mr. Bingham!
On my defense even Victoria thought it was the other question XD
Okay! here are the questions that MAY BE on the test.
*Of course big pic. 1
*and of course the Jesus and Buddha (lifetime, legacies, and A.D)
*the last comparison i think would be "In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in ways did it challenge them?"
*"In what ways did the religious traditions of South Asia change over the centuries?"
*and i'm just blank for the last one...sorry guys XD
I was thinking that instead of your 3rd bullet it would be "What different answers to the problem of disorder arose in classical China"
but meh, probably wrong XP
OH! maybe the first mq "What different answers to the problem of disorder arose in classical China?"
lol we probably posted it at the exact same time XD
I literally just found this. I looked and I couldn't find anyone else who has mentioned this yet, but if you have, I'm really sorry! I'll just post down here instead of replying, since people probably won't see it amongst the 83 other comments.
But another similarity between Jesus and Buddha they both originally intended to reform religions, rather than found new ones. For Buddha, it was Hinduism and for Jesus, it was Judaism.
So I know it's very last minute, but I'm going to try to practice answering a BPQ. And if anyone ends up reading this, feel free to tell me if it is completely wrong.
3. "Religion is a double-edged sword, both supporting and undermining political authority and social elites." How would you support both sides of this statement?
Jesus and Buddha work as a good example for this. Jesus was seen by the political figures as someone with a very threatening religion. Because Christianity worships a jealous and powerful god that wants full devotion towards only the one god, Christians were tagged as atheists because they denied all other gods. This "atheism" can be seen as a threat to the people's ways of life, so the authorities ended up crucifying Jesus. Buddha however was less threatening. Focusing on trying to achieve enlightenment rather than trying to please one specific god can be beneficial for the authorities, for this religion was seen as tolerant and would cause less arguments and confrontations. Similarly with Socrates, he tried to tell everyone that they knew nothing so that they could be contempt, but this idea was not so easily acceptable, so the authorities had him drink hemlock so that he would stop spreading knowledge that may anger people and cause upsets. However, when religions are commonly accepted, people are easier to handle and easier to connect with.
I think I might have started rambling, but there's my attempt.
This is a useless post on a dead thread.
Happy cakeday, somebody.
I just had to click this again when I saw that someone had created an 86th post.
Wow.... This has been so helpful. I'm a freshman taking AP World History, and let me thank you all for your kind (but unintentional) contribution to studying!
Bingham: This forum is for us to engage with each other publicly about where we are struggling with the coursework and to offer each other solutions for what works for us.
Why Geography Matters More Than Ever