Most of you guys have gotten the message and become actively engaged with the reading. It's a process, and you are showing progress. If your score improved, even if it isn't the score you wanted, that's good. That means you are hacking through that jungle and the resort is close!
So when I see people get engaged, it makes me more willing to get engaged. I'll start this chapter off with a few handy points.
-de Blij uses an unusual idiom early in this chapter, "put paid to." I vaguely remember hearing that some time ago, but like you, I needed some help. Here is the definition from the Farlex Free Dictionary; "to consider something closed or completed; to mark or indicate that something is no longer important or pending. (As if one were stamping a bill "paid".)" So in context, de Blij's telling us that if another Chicxulub type impact comes along, the whole anthropogenic discussion won't matter much, in spite of what Al Gore has to say.
-be sure you are actively reading. You know that you are if you are spending more time writing (a lot more) than staring at the book.
-get your definitions listed, defined and written down now! We are going to do a de Blij vocabulary "round table" soon, followed by a quiz. So have all YOUR vocab words together for all of the chapters, including this one, by then.
-stop at each section and write out a summary and a gist for each one before moving on.
Okay, your turn....go!
Alright guys, let's get fired up for Chapter 5 with some vocabulary!! Add if you have more.
This is what I have so far:
I also found the word "Cyberelectrosphere", and I looked but couldn't find a definition. Anybody got anything? Thanks.
Good start. There is probably more for many people though.
Cyberelectrosphere is the global totality of all space-vulnerable, electrically enabled technology
Thanks so much!
In the introduction, de Blij talks about loess in the air and rivers. I don't really see how this impacted the environment at that time. Does that really matter, or am I losing the dust cloud in the particles of glacier-pulverized rock?
Loess is the basis for the most fertility top soil in the world. Since we humans eat food grown from that soil, it's kinda important .
Thanks Mr. Bingham! That makes a lot of sense.
Alright guys, here's what I have for the thesis of the introduction:
The Earth experienced major changes in climate and placement of water when the final surge of the Wisconsian Glacier ended.
Now, is it just me, or is there any real "So What" for this?
Earlier, I explained that you need to gist each section. Thesis is bigger and you'll need to determine that after fully understanding the entire chapter.
Got it. Thanks!
So for the de Blij round table, this will be covering vocab for chapters 1-5? Should we have read chapter 5 by Friday the 25th?
Well, you should have surveyed the chapter and identified words you don't know. And yes, all five chapters.
I'm going to move the Round Table/quiz back. I may flip the calendar from red/gray to gray/red for geography. That means gray day classes will do stuff first, then the red day classes. The morally of the story is; watch the calendar.
Ok so Raven,Ma'at and I have decided we are killing this chapter and are coming to collect blood.So far a decision we are making is going back to the SQ3R METHOD...I was told this actually works and any other strategies recommended?!?!
I love that attitude! Make sure you summarize and then gist, section by section. Remember, the more you write, the higher your comprehension. Studying is just rearranging information.
Are you guys still planning to do a Wednesday lunch study group.?
I guess. I thought you had the re-test on those days.
i mean i thought you had retest on this wednesday
Well, we do. Maybe I can find another place. Stay tuned.
The gist for the first section(what I got)was...De Blij talked about the aftermath of the Wisconsinan glaciers and it's results and how the climate change affected the Americas and how now that the climate is more suitable to live in it opened opportunities for more secure livelihoods and larger communities.Is that correct?
You started with summary and ended with gist. Try to keep them separate in your notes.
For vocab we got:
topographic(even though it was stated in Chapter 2 we looked it up anyway for a better understanding.)
periglacial(definied in the section)
This SQ3R might actually work out for me! I'll have more vocabulary posted later.
Ok so we both have different ways of stating the gist and summarizing it but the same idea but the overall thesis we both agreed on was THE IMPACT OF THE WISCONSINAN GLACIERS CLIMATICALLY.
The Gist of the first section I came up with was:
~The impact of the Wisconsinan glaciers caused lots of struggles and our climate nowadays is suitable to live in and has opened up opportunities, secure livelihoods, and larger communities.
I like it Raven!
Notice her use of the Oxford comma
Ok so I have question for anyone in fifth period pap world geo. Since the chapter five test is Thursday November fifth, does that mean we will now how if Friday November sixth? Thanks y'all! :)
I meant to say.. Yes it is on Friday
No aliases please.
Gist for the section "the final surge" the negative effects of the warming trend
Vocab from "final surge" :
Lubricated(stay in context!)
Gist for section-One Final Surge
~De Blij switches from positive climate change topics to negative topics. He gives examples of how long-temperature trends can be quickly reversed by an environmental incident.
I don't thing that One Final Surge was really so much about negative effects but more towards how climate can be unpredictable. De Blij mentions how the warming of the earth caused the ice to move. When it got to the ocean, it started to cool the Earth. He refers to it as a "hiccup" showing that it was just brief and goes on to explain how scientist think that catastrophic events are a big factor of climate. Is this right?
Spencer that really is helpful I think it was negative causing of the ice sheets melting and causing disastrous stirs and return to glaciation-time temperature but I think you're more general so I'm trying to combine yours with mine
Yeah that's probably right. He also talks about the ice sheets started to slide downslope into the ocean. He mentioned The Younger Dryas as well. But I would think if the climate is unpredictable that could fall into a negative category kind of. Right?
I think this is great and super helpful, except for one thing: a lot of the things they (de Blij and the video) were talking about was that the climate moves in a cycle. I think that is really why they were calling it a "hiccup", not just because it was brief. Maybe a more all-encompassing idea of the "One Final Surge" was that it was short, random, and disruptive...? Am I right, Mr. Bingham?
I noticed a lot of adjectives that were pretty big vocabulary words such as salubrious and contemporaneous. Would those be likely quiz questions, or should I focus more on nouns and verbs?
Sarah, I would mainly just focus on words that will help you get a better understanding of the context, not really whether it's a noun or a verb. Words that you know you're not familiar with at all because vocabulary is quite unpredictable so just focus on words that help you get a better understanding of the context. Hope that helped!
For the section Holocene Humanity we found it nearly impossible to get through more than half the section without being unaware of the meaning and understanding of the word "geology".
At first it was like, ehh not that important, but the. We realized it was used multiple times throughout this section. So we decided to look it up.
The David Deusch reference we feel was included because De Bli wants us to get into a geographic mindset and stay away from geologic thinking.
but isnt david deusch a physicist
Okkkk but Mr.Bingham make sure we know why DeBlij utilitizes different references and examples so the fact that he's physicist has nothing to do with what de Blij is trying t convey
So basically in Holocene Humanity de Blij just talks about how humans have interacted with the changing climate, not only by affecting it, but also how we have had to adapt to these higher temperatures.
Great! You Got It!
Hey guys. I don't know if you realized this, but deBlij mentions the word 'pulverize' at least twice in the intro... I know Mr. Bingham told us to look out for words that he repeats, so I hope this is useful..
Hi guys! I have a quick question. While reviewing early sections in chapter 5, I was retreading the information about the Younger Dryas, and i am a little confused. I understand that the glaciers slid into the ocean causing huge waves, but I don't understand how this in turn caused over 1,000 years of cooling temps. Thanks for your help guys!!! :)
I'm no climatologist, but we are talking about a chunk of ice about the size of Canada and several hundred feet thick. This would lower sea temperatures and the salinity of the oceans disrupting the currents that redistribute heat worldwide. It's difficult for us to imagine the scale of these things.
This is an interesting side question, but allow me to suggest for now that you focus on understanding what de Blij is saying. I think that's enough for us to digest in the next couple of weeks.
Thanks so much mr. Bingham, that actually makes sense. Ok, will do!! :)
In the Holocene Humanity section, what does de Blij mean by "the Earth's magnetic cocoon" ?
The earth is surrounded by an invisible magnetic field a few hundred miles out in to space. This tends to protect us from much of the radiation bouncing around in space, especially the radiation from the sun. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_magnetic_field
I think you guys should focus on the vocabulary in 5, since that's the next thing we'll do. And it isn't helpful to simply post words, include definitions as they are used by de Blij in the book.
Hi guys. I noticed when people post vocabulary, definitions are mentioned, but not the page number that the words are being used in. Is it possible to start doing this? I think it'll be helpful.
just a suggestion :)
so i just want to make sure . when deblij says the population "mushrooms" is he referencing to the shape of the population chart???
He means, that like a mushroom, it gets wide/bigger fast.
okay thank you that makes more sense :)
I thought this chapter was pretty straight-forward, but will we need to memorize the six major types of climate? Also, will we need to know the exact dates and years of major events?
I agree, this chapter is straight forward. Vocab is the main issue I think. As for climate types, no, not the specifics, just generally where they are, like mid, low and high latitudes.
And as usual no specific dates, but like k/t impact last chapter, there are important time frames...the little ice age comes to mind!
Yeah, I figured there would be lots of vocab up here by now!
Hey guys! I used Quizlet to make a Chapter 5 Vocab notecard set. I just included the words that I personally found challenging, not necessarily words that I think will be on the test. Feel free to let me know if you want to add a word or something. http://quizlet.com/29170103/de-blij-chapter-5-vocab-flash-cards/
Very nice Isabella! I hope everyone appreciates you.
thank you for vthe quizzlet page
I just noticed you have the wrong definition for vector. In this case, de Blij is referring to an organism, usually a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal to another. He's talking about the fleas on rats that carried the Bubonic Plague.
Ah, sorry. Thanks for the clarification!
THANK YOU ISABELLAU
So I've noticed more and more people are having study success with "mindmapping" software. There is a lot out there. This weekend, I've been playing with FreeMind and iThoughts. Very cool, check out what I did. Maybe this is for you as well?
Hey Mr. Bingham,
So I was going over the word "periglacial", which means edge of the glacials. By 'edge', does it mean an actual physical place, or a metaphorical edge, like edge of a time period?
In context, de Blij puts what would likely be in real life "air quotes " around "edge of the glaciers". That, I think, implies a more figurative usage. :)
Hey guys! this vocab is so helpful! maybe you could involve the page numbers??
Hey! So, Alexis and I created a giant list so far on Chapter 5 vocab!! oh and just in case people cant find the page numbers, we will include them for you!! I've learned that when you put a word in context, its easier to understand. Also, we didn't get a couple page numbers or definitions for some words. if any of you guys could help with that, that would be awesome! :)
Heres what we got.. :
(p.127) Cyberelectrosphere- the global totality of all space-vulnerable, electrical enables technology.
(p.123) Morainal- a deposit of sediment left on the ground by a glacier.
(p.124) Physiographic- the science of physical geography
(p.124) Loess- pulverized, powdered rock. (basis for most fertility topsoil -Bingham)
(p.128) De-Glaciation- the recession of ice and the opening of land to atmospheric conditions.
(p.131) Alleviate- to lessen ( or mitigate :D )
(p.131) Vicissitudes- a change or variation
(p.130) Re-Glaciation- ?? EHH
( ? ) Fodder- raw-material, feed. (thanks ms. elmore :D )
(p.130) Vector- an organism, such as a tick or flea, that transmits a disease from one animal to another.
(p.124) Periglacial- the edge of the glacials.
(p.130) Mushroomed- to get bigger/wider fast.
(p.128) Salubrious- healthful, favorable to
(p.123) Upheaval- violent change or disturbance
(p.123) Glacial "Lobes"- ?? EHH
(p.123) Coniferous- full of green trees that normally produce cones and needles. ex: evergreen
( Somewhere in chapter 2...) Topographic- a detailed mapping of features in a relatively small area.
(p.124) Offing- a position at a distance from shore.
(p.124) Turbulent- a state of agitation
(p.132) Ineptitude- lack of skill or ability.
(p.130) Dendrochronology- the process of counting tree rings in order to determine the age of a tree.
(p.131) Onslaught- an onset or attack
(p.131) Plight- a struggle or period of distress.
ill type some more tomorrow.... its... finally... donee.. *sigh.
Thank you so much for posting this! it was really helpful.
glacial lobe- a tongue/finger-like projection from a glacier's main mass
I could be wrong, but I think in the context of de blij, offing is referring to something that is likely to happen or appear soon. It is a special usage, and it makes a little more sense. :)
Context for what, glacial lobe? Or something in the list of vocab?
no problem Sara!
and thanks hank!
your very welcome
"Environment may not determine the capacities of humans, but environmental events can decisively influence the course of history."
Hey guys, sorry for dropping in a bit late!
I just wanted to have a quick shout out to people who missed the tutorials yesterday...
Make sure that you know the thesis that Spencer (thanks!) posted online backwards and forwards.
Also, the chart on page 136 will not be tested (data-wise). Understand the message, but don't worry about the numbers! Same for the chart on page 138...
I also looked at the mind-map that Mr. Bingham created (thanks!) and it is SERIOUSLY helpful if the Little Ice Age is confusing for you. I would recommend stretching out the diagram to help keep track of your thoughts, and I will probably post a modified version of that chart later on.
Oh, and you NEED to know the Optimums! I'm going to memorize them like I did the epochs, but the key point is to understand what is going on in those time periods (ex: effects of optimum).
I am also working on a master vocabulary list that I will post soon. ..
Until then, good luck!
Hey guys, in Chapter 5, Section 8 (Warming the World), De Blijj talks about Inter-glacials and glaciations. He talks about the Eemian and the Holocene, but not about the two that came before them. Is this important, or am I losing the climate change in the glaciations?
What's so significant about the Toba "reprise" on the island of Thira. I'm confused I don't know really what to get from it
On pg 129 that whole paragraph about the dynasties and stuff I feel like that's relevant but NOT related is that right?!?!?
The phrase you're looking for is; related, not relevant. But it's both!
Clinton, when de Blij talks about the dynasties, he is providing an example of how the Medieval Optimum (something we should know about for the test) affected the earth and its inhabitants. In the video we watched we learned how the Medieval Optimum brought farming back. de Blij mentions how the Romans planted abundant grapevines, and how more trees grew. He mentions the cities "mushroomed" meaning their population had a little bit of a explosion. the dynasties were mentioned because they too began to do better, in agriculture as well as in society and art. then when the temperatures changed again, things went back to being bad, and that's how he ended the section. So this part was related AND relevant. I hope this helps :)
Thanks Spencer! Btw it helped a lot. #pianistsunite
The explosion of Thira aka Santorini delivered a fatal blow on the Minoan civilization(Crete) which made way for Ancient Greece to become the dominant power.
Gist of the Holocene Humanity:How the humans have advanced,influenced & adapted to the extremes and eventful climatic changes of the Holocene Epoch.
and human impact on the increasing planetary temperature.
Mr. Bingham, I noticed a problem in your mindma. You noted the Little Ice Age lasted from about 1300 to the mid 1900s.
As I was reading I caught de Blij say mid nineteenth century (1800s), so I looked it up to make sure. Just wanted to say so nobody would get that wrong
Good catch Spencer, thanks!
Gist of section- Holocene Humanity
~The human environmental actions is the sole cause of increase in planetary temperature.
Okay, be careful Raven. That is de Blij presentation of that argument, but it isn't de Blij's point. This is one of those cases when he's explaining a position, but not taking that position. It's the "sole" part of that he counters later in the chapter.
Hey everyone!! Question for Mr. Bingham or anyone who soundly knows the answer: Is the 1783 eruption in Iceland Laki, or are they two different things? Thanks.
Never mind, I looked it up. Thanks.
well what did you find
Okay, so this is just out of curiosity . . . but on page 127, the middle paragraph, De Blijj refrences Ryan and Pitman: "By the time it was over, Ryan and Pitman wrote, the surface of the Black Sea had risen 145 meters (500 feet) . . ." My question is, what was the duration? Was the flooding of the Black Sea in terms of weeks, months, or years? Thanks.
Lorenz, if the water rose 15cm each day, and in the end it had risen 145m (14,500 cm) then the time it took to fill it was about 967 days (almost 3 years) because 14,500/15=196.666...
Spencer, I'm impressed with the quality of your posts. Well done. You should hold a study session Wednesday at lunch for people who aren't doing the Choices debate...unless you are too!
Hey guys! In chapter 5, Why did glaciers start to melt in the first place? What was the "increasing melt"? on p.124???
Okay, so this is what I think . . . The Ice Ages, Glaciations, and Inter-glacials are all part of a big overall climate change equation which is:
Sweep of Sun's energy + Rotation of the Earth + Circulation Systems of the Ocean + The Movement of Pressure Systems + The Rush of Air in Jet Streams
Hope that helped ( You might want to try saying the equation three times and very fast while holding your tongue. Very entertaining).
Kristine, I could find a reason for the "increasing warmth" that de Blij is talking about, other than the fact that it was 18,000 years ago was about the time the Wisconinan Glaciation came to an end. I did, though, find a bit of information on the Great Melt, also mentioned on page 124. Basically, the Great Melt was an event that happened about 20,000 years ago when the Antarctic ice started to melt. Scientists believe it to have been related to the warming of the northern hemisphere, which is the "increasing warmth" you asked about. http://news.yahoo.com/west-antarctica-warmed-quickly-20-000-years-ago-170506713.html
thank you!!!! :D
Holocene Humanity Summary: The ways humans have advanced in the world and the areas they have inhabited throughout history was directly influenced by environmental changes, causing populations to flourish or struggle in different areas.
Crisis in Europe Gist/Summary: The "real" Little Ice Age coincided with the Maunder and Dalton minimums, and those in addition to a significant volcanic eruption caused violent floods, storms, and food shortages in Europe.
Guys what's the difference between a summary and a gist? I'm making bullet point lists of things that happen in each section, then doing quick summery things, and I plan to put it all into some webs eventually.
A summary is like long story short.
Gist is the point the author is trying to make.
What exactly is an Optimum? I have a rough idea, but I'm not exactly sure still what it is. de BLij keeps using this term and I can't find a real answer on the Internet. Thanks.
An optimum is a climatology term meaning any warming, or warmer period. Optimum as in better for growing, better for life in general.
So a post-glacial optimum is like when the glaciers have started to melt and it is beginning to get warmer, i.e. The beginning of the Eemian interglacial after the Illinoian glaciation? Just wondering if I interpreted this right, mr. Bingham.
Or would it be more like when the wisconsinan glaciation ended and it got very warm very fast, so there were warmer summers and milder winters. Then, because of these changes there were more secure livelihoods and larger communities???
Thank you Mr. Bingham!
I think I found the thesis!!
Although we as a society are very advanced, we rely on nature to sustain us. De Blij points out that many times over nature and its accompanying climate have shifted unexpectedly and have caused the societies of the time to adapt. Although we CANNOT reverse climate change, we can mitigate what is already happening by cutting out our portion of greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, nature reigns supreme and has a lot of influence on our societies as a whole. We are only worsening the current situation and will have to face the consequences in the future if we don't pull ourselves together :) I hope I got it...
I think another integral part of it is that, though environment may not directly determine the limits of humanity, environmental events most definitely can influence the course of history. I think spencer said something similar to this several posts up. Hope this makes sense James!! :)
James, I posted the thesis a while ago. It basically what you said, but it's a direct quote of what de Blij said on pg 131. Plus Mr. Bingham said it was the thesis..
Yeah James, you have good feedback here. You have the idea, it can be said more concisely though.
So when de Blij talks about the Black Sea I feel like it's information that is supporting his idea that humans are subject to the power of nature over them, but I was never quite sure how deeply we need to know these examples that he uses to prove his points.
Yes, that is why he used that example. Think about it, if that theory's true, imagine how powerful the forces of nature are in dictation the course of human history. The flood myth appears in practically every society, not to mention the catastrophic impact of the event itself.
I think that one thing that is very good at driving de Blij's point of minor changes in environment changing human life drastically is one page 126. Take a look at the Medieval Optimum and then the Little Ice Age. Just look at how small this change in temperature is yet it still had dramatic affects on people. It might help if you're a little confused.
Just a comment I think the last paragraph on page 140 sums up a lot of what De Blij's trying to accomplish through this chapter, about how humans have had virtually no experience with crazy environmental disasters and how we cannot control climate change but we might be able to affect it by limiting our greenhouse gas emanations and how we're going to be challenged by the rapid climate change in the future.
Okay, so I keep seeing "climatic reversals" popping up throughout the chapter; is that referring to glaciations after a warming period or something? I'm a bit confused; I forgot to bring it up in class.
Yeah, I think he means the climate going from glaciation to interglacial to glaciation, and eventually maybe into a new climatic epoch. Kind of like the Little Ice Age was majorly different from the climate humans had seen for all of their existence so far (it was a reversal)
Okay, cool, that's sort of the direction I was thinking. Also, I made a study guide that's pretty thorough (it involves a lot of what was said on here) so if you guys want it, I'll bring some copies to school tomorrow, so just come find me if you want one.
I just reread the chapter and found some more things I wanted to bring to the forum.
On page 142, de Blij uses the word steppe. It means a vast semi-arid glass plain. I missed this word originally since it is in the caption of the diagram.
I found that de Blij enjoyed using metaphors and similes in this chapter and other types of comparisons. One I didn't really understand was on page 146 he says "the rise and fall of societies in terms of the 'sweep' of climate change." What exactly is he saying here?
I didn't feel like the Industrial Optimum section was too important. Was I missing something out of that section?
The Industrial Optimum wasn't incredibly important, I agree, but it was expanding on the fact that humans aren't responsible for climate change, we only add to it by emanating greenhouse gasses and such, especially since it came about around the industrial revolution, so we (humans) were actually adding to the process nature had previously been the sole producer of (climate change).
I didn't think that steppe was too important, though it wouldn't hurt to know the word.
I think that with the metaphor you added, he was talking about how with climate changing constantly, we are "swept" along in the wake of it...like the Little Ice Age; even though the change in climate was only 4 degrees, it made a huge impact on Eurasia.
Also, I saw that de Blij repeated the word prowess, meaning "Exceptional or superior ability" (p. 139 and 140)
Yeah, you guys are thinking clearly here.
One note on Bridget's study guide though. I'm sure it's very good, but it's the making the study guide that prepares you for the test, not reading someone else's . Just throwing that out there.
That sounds like a great tool! Thanks Bridget!
Can someone point out to me where they think the shift from de Blij talking about other people's argument is to where his own is? I have an idea I just want to confirm it.
On pg 138, de Blij mentions an "inconvenient truth"; that humans are causing global warming. Note that he states it to be a hypothesis, not a fact. Then, on pg 140, he says that "we will never be able to control climate change, but we may be able to mitigate it somewhat by limiting our greenhouse-gas emanations." This implies that we are not the only factor, since limiting would only lessen the problem instead of doing away with it all together. What he does is not changing his argument. He presents an argument, but does not agree with it completely. Then he presents his argument.
Ok so I've been reading the comments and the book of course and it seems that the charts and diagrams aren't really a big focus. So I was wondering are they any help at all or are they just there? (To put it shortly; will the charts help with the test like it did last time?)
The charts don't need to be memorized, but you do need to understand the message they convey.
UGH. I can't find a good definition of re-glaciation online, can someone PLEASE help? Thanks...
just use context clues if it makes sense re means again and glaciation you know so its a glaciation after a de glaciation
I am not 100% sure but the best I could find is
~ the gradual formation of glaciers on the surface of a landmass.
(guess who's back)
(tell a friend)
Here is my masterlist for the chapter! Apologies for my being so late.
1. Massive sheets of glacial ice pushed downward into the lower latitudes during the Wisconsinan, so either you got out of the way or got pulverized.
2. Although the warming of the climate during the Stone Ages was a breath of relief from the frost, the unbelievable amounts of dust in the air was blown everywhere. The Dust Bowl looked like nothing.
3. Direct quote, "Warmer summers and milder winters opened opportunities for more secure livelihoods and larger communities" (de Blij, pg 125).
4. With this introduction, de Blij gives background information on the time of before the ice age, so that we understand the context of the climate. The more you read the chapter, the more you start to realize how volatile climate can be in such comparatively brief amounts of time. Think about it: We've been here for an eyeblink, like he said in the last chapter. If it's just an eyeblink, you would see the Toba Explosion, the Chixulub Impact, the Little Ice Age, the "Toba Reprise" that wiped out Crete, and the development of modern society in less than a second. What would that look like? A blur. A huge, fiery, blindingly quick blur. That puts in perspective the fact that the climate is so violent, even if we don't all necessarily see it within our obviously short lifetimes. Whoa.
ONE FINAL SURGE
1. As Zii mentioned earlier, climate does seem to have a cyclic pattern, but there are blips in the circle.
2. The Younger Dryas was like when you're listening to a huge orchestral piece, and then right after what you think is the big finish, there's another little "TA-DAAA" interlude. The interlude is the Younger Dryas.
3. What that was was an ice sheet the size of a Canadian province sliding into the North Atlantic and causing HUGE WAVES. It made the ocean freezing cold, though in the end, it was just a little hiccup in the cycle.
4. De Blij mentions this question: What if the Greenland Ice sheet slid into the ocean? This example of the Dryas isn't just an interesting piece of trivia. Even for a tiny messup in the continual pattern, it was remarkably catastrophic. Think about if a bigger sheet slid into the ocean. That would drown millions and millions and millions of people.
1. The "Anthropocene" is an apprpriate geographic name for this epoch, because the rapid development of human beings still is absolutely unprecedented.
2. Though we do influence the environment, it is quite arrogant to assume that we have any sort of control over it.
3. The Postglacial Optimum occurred about 7000 yeats ago, and the conditions there began to resemble the conditions we have today.
4. That transitioned into another great era called the Medieval Optimum.
a) The Roman Empire synthesized Europe into this wonderful balance of harmony that the continent has never been a part of since.
b) The Han Dynasty was the start of a massive power, and its prominence reflected that of Rome's
c) The Wine Industry was thriving in the currently least likely of places: Britain.
d) Unbelievable Gothic architecture was created during this period of cultural and environmental stability.
5. Not all was fantastic back then. The island of Thira, north of Crete in the Greek archipelago, went BOOM, similar to Toba.
a) This obliterated the Minoan civilization that had inhabited Crete, but it did pave way for the Ancient Greeks.
b) The west started to get the worst of it. It became colder, and Britain's wine industry was wiped out.
THE LITTLE ICE AGE
1. Traits included:
a) Increasing cold
b) Less rain
c) Shorter growing seasons
d) Failing crops
2. The Little Ice Age started in the 1300s and continued until the mid-19th.
3. The Mongols pushed Westward, but as did rats and fleas and other carriers of awful bacteria. Because the conditions were getting rougher, even other organisms wanted to get away, so they followed the humans west. That caused the Black Death, killing 1/3 of the world's population.
4. IMPORTANT: "Environment may not determine the capacities of humans, but environmental events can decisively influence the course of history."
a) Think about it: Had the LIA never occurred, The Black Death would have never spread. Everything is so interconnected throughout history and geography. Without this being here, then that wouldn't have happened at this time. The temporal and spatial are always related.
CRISIS IN EUROPE
1. The Little Ice Age did do a little good.
a) It brought on the Second Industrial Revolution.
i) Field methods, marketing, and the transportation and storage of produce improved.
2. The Maunder Minimum!
a) Coincided with the coldest period of the millenium, when sunspot activity was particularly low.
3. the Jamestown Colony collapse is explained in part by the climactic conditi
ons in the LIA. Besides the "ineptitude, lack of preparation", and racism, environment had a huge part in the fall of that colony.
4. The Laki Eruption in Iceland brought down temperatures by 7 degrees.
5. The French Revolution's particularly low food supply was likely tied to the environmental conditions.
1. The Tambora Volcano went BOOOOM.
a) Unfortunately, this killed all but 26 of 12000.
2. In the U.S. corn wouldn't ripen, grain price went up, and the entire livestock market just went plop.
THE HUMAN FACTOR
1. The Industrial Revolution was occurring when the Little Ice Age started to come to its end.
a) Societies and industries were transforming.
b) Population growth was accelerating at an incredible pace.
2. De Blij makes this point: In 2015, the world will have seven times as many people as it did at the time of Tambora. How would we, a multi-billion person population, be able to cope with that caliber explosion?
WARMING THE WORLD
1. When most of the remaining Wisconsinan ice melted (aside from the Antarctic and Greenland), continental shelved flooded, driving people out of their homes, similar to the way in which those who had been affected by the Black Sea fill had been driven out.
2. Currently, the idea that the globe could further be warmed is influenced by the amount of human pollution in our atmosphere.
a) As mentioned earlier, we are not the whole problem itself. Nature is going to do what it wants when it wants, and we don't have any control over it.
3. We have witnessed four glaciations:
And five interglacials, markedly shorter than the glaciations.
4. The Eemian interglacial can imply much about what could happen in our own interglacial.
a) There is an obvious pattern in the temperature changes in the past five glaciations/interglacials.
b) Though none may reach the exact same level of temperature every time, the timing of the rises and falls correspond.
5. We could be experiencing the highest temperatures yet because of the combination of greenhouse gas emanations and natural causes.
a) There's no doubt that we are making contrbutions to warming the planet, though we aren't the dominant cause. We can't overpower nature.
1. The end of the LIA could be called the "Industrial Optimum" because of the influence we've had on the atmosphere and Earth since the start of the Industrial Revolution.
2. The 1940s change in technology caused a huge amount of sulfurous gas emissions, reflecting the Sun's radiation into space and causing cooling.
3. Though there are positive qualities to the climate change (ex. shorter winters, brighter summers), there are always consequences (aridity).
ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE AND DANGEROUS EXTREMES
1. "Short-term reversals are likely to be attended by violent environmental events.
a) Basically, if you add a negative to a positive, it becomes a balanced...thing.
2. Even though it may be a long time coming, we still need to prepare for global natural disaster, because if we're unprepared, the results could be cataclysmic.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER ON THE MAP
1. Weather Making Factors:
a) The Sun's Energy
b) Rotation of the Earth
c) Circulation of Oceans
d) Movement of pressure systems
e) Rush of air in jet streams
2. Vladimir Koppen created a renowned system of estimating worldwide climate systems!
a) Equatorial, Tropical, Moist (Central Africa, Central South America)
b) Desert, Dry (Most of Australia, North Africa)
c) Midlatitude, Mild (Southeastern U.S., Eastern China, SE Australia)
d) Continental, Harsh (Chicago, Moscow, Sapporo)
e) Polar, Frigid (The Poles and Antartica)
f) Highland (Sliver of East Africa, Sliver of NW North America)
3. Geographers and people in general are fascinated by the idea that climate is correlated to the success of certain civilizations.
a) Be careful! This kind of environmental determinism can lead to racist generalizations if handled the wrong way. Naziism stemmed directly from this philosophy, and supremacy in general has and could still be derived from it.
4) The Koppen map shouldn't be taken for granted. To give the chapter a bit of symmetry, de Blij succinctly states: "it represents the way things are today, but not as they were yesterday, not as they will be tomorrow".
5) Jared Diamond stated that the environmental resources and opportunities will put people at an advantage over others.
6) We've got no idea what the future will be like!
7) If we're careful, we can be better to the environment and perhaps slow the rapid warming, but we're not stopping it.
And that was chapter five! Please let me know if I've missed anything!
thank you this is very helpful
This is amazing!! Thanks :D
This was SUPER helpful. Thanks so much! :)
mackenzie for the tambora bingham said to know the exact date
Hey guys, just as another helpful study guide, I made a quizlet on the chapter earlier today( I know the test is tomorrow/Friday but if you want to review , it's there) To find it just search my username on quizlet : prismasprinkles
Thanks Hailey your such an amazing bestfriend!!!!
Okay wow time just kind of slapped me in the face and I'm tripping because this is all happening during all the things we've ever learned in (particularly U.S.) history guys... Like freaking Jamestown, the native Americans, European colonists, industrial revolution, even the graph dates to 2010! Not to mention the French Revolution. This probably won't help with the test tomorrow but I just thought I'd share because why not
One (rather late) note on the "Distant Threat" subchapter: de Blij uses the term "globe-girdling-membrane" to describe the cloak of ash that Tambora created when it exploded. Just sayin.
its the day before the De Blij test for some, and some have already taken it! i hope you guys studied! :) I noticed that some people were confused on the Holocene Humanity. I sort of came up with a gist for the first part of this section...
Even though humans have done so much to our planet ( deforestation, destruction of marine fauna,extraction of resources, etc. ), that natures power still remains awesome.
any comments on this??
yea so i just wanted a clarification on the gist or summary because so many people have done it already...
Does anyone understand what De blig means when he says we are living in the autumn of an interglacial? It's on p.140 last paragraph
Kristine, I think that the gist for that section is correct. Don't forget the overall thesis though.
@BethanyV hey-o! I think I know what he's saying. If you take the seasons literally - in a place that actually has seasons - (unlike Houston which just has "summer" and "that stuff that isn't summer") that we aren't in the "winter" of the interglacial, which would be the worst or coldest point, and we aren't in the "summer" of the interglacial, which would be the best or warmest point, we're in a neutral-feeding-into-cooling point. If he (de Blij) had said we were in the "spring" of the interglacial, we'd be in a neutral-feeding-into-warming point. Basically, we're in a not-quite hot, not-quite cold point. (Hope that made sense)
Thanks, that definitely makes sense!
^^ ??? :)
Bethany, although I don't necessarily think Zii is incorrect, I thought that de Blij meant that we may be nearing the end of this interglacial, or we are about three quarters in to it. I'm not sure though, so you might want to ask Mr. Bingham tomorrow morning....
Are we starting on Chapter 6 now or another? I just want to make sure that we are.
No, not six. I'll let you know soon.
Bingham: This forum is for us to engage with each other publicly about where we are struggling with the coursework and to offer each other solutions for what works for us.
Why Geography Matters More Than Ever