Eva/Mia: Just realized those are Strayer 6 Qs!
Okay, you got to the point a bit fast. This is a causation prompt, so you're looking for causes, first for the independence of universities, and the the causation related to universities on the SR.
So it was Europeans that established laws that guaranteed independence of a variety of institutions under the umbrella idea of "corporations". European universities became "neutral zones of intellectual autonomy" in which scholars could get on with their studies in relative freedom from getting messed with by either the church or state. Within the universities, the study of the "natural order" (science) began to slowly separate from philosophy and theology - gaining a distinct identity. Most major figures of the SR had been trained at, or were affiliated with, a university.
While I'm here, I'll do a comparison. (pg. 305)
Why were missionary efforts to spread Christianity less successful in China than in Latin America?
● The political context was very different, with missionaries to China working within the context of the powerful and prosperous Ming and Qing dynasties, while missionaries to Spanish America worked among a defeated population whose societies had been thoroughly
disrupted and whose cultural confidence (in their gods) was shaken.
● European missionaries required the permission of Chinese authorities to operate in China, while Spanish missionaries working in a colonial setting were less constrained. Ultimately, missionaries in China lost favor at the Chinese imperial court.
● Missionaries to China deliberately sought to convert the official Chinese elite, while missionaries to Spanish America sought to convert the masses.
● Missionary efforts in China were less successful because the missionaries offered little that the Chinese really needed, since traditional Chinese philosophies and religions met the spiritual needs of most Chinese. Also, Christianity required the converts to abandon much of traditional Chinese culture. In the Americas, local gods had in part been discredited by the Spanish conquest, and in any case, Christianity was a literate world religion, something different from what had been practiced in the region before.
for ‘what motivated european political and economic expansion in the late 15th century,’ i got:
- spreading christianity (mostly by catholics)
- obtaining spices and other foreign goods
- competition between european states
it’s what i got from the section around the question, but i feel like there should be more. any other answers?
I believe you are over thinking this one. It's just the evangelism of Christianity, and the general European tradition of expansion - this is especially true with the Spanish and the Portuguese.
What does this image suggest about the attitude of the artist toward the Lutheran reformation?
Martin Luther is in the background.
Dissaproving faces of nobles are in the foreground.
This suggests that artist disapproves of Lutheran reformation
Does anybody have anymore suggestions please
It shows Martin Luther nailing his 95 Theses to the church door (which makes in Wittenberg in 1517). The fat friar (priest) seems shocked. There are inquisitive people seeming to want to know what's up. This leads one to the idea that the artist was either in favor of the Reformation, are at least that he didn't mind the criticisms of the Catholic church.
For "Analyze the impact of the printing press on the spread of Protestantism and the divisions within it", is the answer as simple as the printing press enabled copies of Luther's pamphlets to spread beyond Germany?
I think that's the main point, but I also noted that it increased literacy and allowed for new ideas to be printed. This also resulted in lots of religious subdivisions (not sure if that's the best word though)
- printing press leads to spread of reformation thinking within + beyond Germany
- translated pamphlets/New Testament widely available
- increase of literacy
- Protestant denominations, competing churches
- Thirty Years War: violent Catholic-Protestant struggle
- religious differences end unity of Catholic Europe
- Protestant breakaway + reformist tendencies = Counter-Reformation
- new Catholic religious orders: Jesuits
Adding on, I put:
-bible was now available translated in German, allows for easier understanding
-fostered religious individualism across Europe because people has access to personal bibles/scripture
I'm confused on the question "In what ways did European science affect major civilizations of Asia in the early modern era?" on pg. 322. Strayer says that major Asian societies were modest and selective in their interest in European science, so I assume they didn't affect them majorly?
-helped Ottoman and Chinese in map-making and calendar
-helped Chinese further explore history of Chinese math
-introduced European learning (especially antomical studies) to Japanese scholars
I'm not sure if this is helpful but additionally I put that in Japan specifically a 'center of dutch learning' was created
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